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tv   Book Discussion  CSPAN  September 7, 2014 4:41pm-5:22pm EDT

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the bird looks like at that moment. so i would supplement my book with a photographic field guide. and there's quite a few out there and new ones coming out all the time. so i won't single one out, but there are some very good photographic guide. and i will recommend -- actually, a book that really inspired me for the artwork is lars jonsson's birds of europe that was published in the 1990s, published in the u.s. by princeton university press. just fantastic artwork. it is not a fantastic field guide, but the artwork is just glorious. so that -- i will recommend not for the art work and there is a newer vote -- a new but they
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came out this year called through birds of north america. published by princeton as well. it covers all of the species recorded in north america that are included in my book. my book covers over 800 species, that leaves out the very barest of the rare, the species that have only been recorded three or four times. so to get information on all of those, there is an excellent new book called rare birds of north america. >> so would you say basically, if i could cannot size you would be most helpful to have your guide about which for the bird watchers says okay, you want to see website things i'm not heard to identify it is such a bird, but the photographic guide also is helpful in that it looks like
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that. >> yeah, it is helpful to have the photographs. once you think you've identified the bird, look at the photographic guide and see what the photographs look like. to have that multiple different viewpoints. my book includes my own particular vision of the species. it is my interpretation of what a robin lopez lake. so having multiple field guide is always a good idea to compare different artists interpretations are different photographs to get a broader picture of what that might look like. >> thank you for justifying spending on in a full field guides. >> you are welcome. [applause] >> thank you. the ♪
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>> nextstep, michio kaku discusses "the future of the mind." [inaudible conversations] >> all right. i am enoch [cheers and applause] wow. the science room is rocking it tonight today at the convention center. unbelievable. well, we are here to hear dr. michio kaku, who is just amazing. i love this guy. [applause] just a footnote, i enjoyed off of mock from the "washington post." i assume you knew. but i love the big cosmic questions. and there's no one better at ascii variants. big cosmic amazing questions
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than dr. kaku. he is a cofounder and a theoretical physicist in new york. he's written multiple bestsellers. he refers to them as "new york times" bestsellers. i don't use that term. [laughter] but this book begins the first line. the new book is a "the future of the mind." the first line as the two greatest mysteries and all of nature are the mine in the universe. so we start from that. he asks the question, do we have a soul? what happens to us after we die? who am i anyway? where do we fit into this great cosmic scheme? and that is on the first page. [laughter] you know, this is the stuff that people, when you are in college a free clock in the morning and you are in the dorm room, you
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know from the stand up all night drinking healthy carrot juice or whatever. this is what you talk about. anyway, so he's an amazing man and let's hear from him. all right. [applause] >> wow, after such a great introduction, i can't wait to hear the speaker myself. first of all, i have a confession to make. sometimes all of these accolades can backfire. recently new york magazine voted me as one of the most 100 smartest people in new york. [applause] so i thought, what an honor. however, in all fairness, i have to admit that madonna also made that same list. and next year, i understand the
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i understand lady god is going to push me off the list entirely. today i'm going to talk about the future, the future of your mind. however, making predictions is dangerous. let me quote from the great philosopher of the western world , yogi berra. yogi berra quotes prediction is often hard to do, especially if it about the future. well, i'm a physicist. we can talk about the future of the universe billions of years from now. let me quote from the other great her, woody allen. eternity is an awful long time, specially for the yen. you may say to yourself, what does the physicist do anyway?
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what have you done for me lately? well, we think this is invented the transistor. we invented the laser. we helped to construct the computers and the internet. we wrote the world wide web. along the way, we invented television. we invented radio, radar, microwaves, x-ray machines. don't forget, we created the space program and the gps system and we physicist loves to make predictions. when we assembled the internet, one physicist predicted that the internet would become a forum of high culture, high art and high society. [laughter] today we know 5% of the internet is. but that is because teenage boys log onto the internet. just wait until the grandmas and grandpa's log onto the internet.
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then 50% of the internet will be pornography. before i begin giving you a guided tour to the incredible sensational development in their assigned, let me tell you a cautionary story about a physicist. over 200 years ago we had the great french revolution. one day they were three gentlemen about to lose their head to the guillotine. there is a priest, a lawyer and a theoretical physicist just like me about to lose their head to the guillotine. well, they put the priests head on the chopping block. they asked him, do you have any last before we pfister had up? he said yes, yes, god. god from above shall set me free. well, all eyes were on the blade. they raised the blade.
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the blade came down from a swish and stopped right before it hits the neck of the priests. the crowd gasped. they have never seen this before. so the mob set with the priests go because today god has spoken. now let's see about the voyeur. yes, the lawyer. but the lawyer head on the chopping blog. they said you have any last words? he said yes, maybe the spirit of justice. justice and mercy shall set me free. all eyes were on the blade. they raised the blade. the blade came down, swish and stopped right before it hit the neck of the voyeur. this time the mob went crazy, dancing in the streets of paris. people were saying god has spoken. justice and mercy have spoken today. now let's see about the physicist. they put the physicist had in the chopping block and asked him if he had any last words. he said yeah, yeah, i've got
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some last words. he said enough, i don't know too much about god and i know even less about the law, but i do know one thing. if you look up, you will see that the rope is stuck on the pulley. [laughter] [applause] and then the physicist said if you remove the rope, the blade should come down real good. big save. big mistake. well, the rope came down, the blade came down and the physicist had came down. it goes to show you, sometimes the physicist have to know when to keep our mouths shut. nonetheless, today i will open the mouths of 300 of the world's top science is that i interview for bbc television, the science channel, discovery channel about
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what sits on your shoulder. and afterwards i will be signing books. i will be signing your book and afterwards you can go to ebay and auction it off. for money. you can actually make money today. so today we are going to talk about the future of your mind. the previous book i wrote, if i can bring that up, with physics of the future, talking about the next 50 to the next 100 years. it is often said that in the book buying world that the word physics would never enter "the new york times" bestsellers list. well, i did it twice. physics of the impossible talks about teleporters, starships, even time travel. what happens when you go backwards in time and meet your teenage mother before you were born and she falls in love with you. well, if your teenage mother
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falls in love with you before you were born, you are in deep doo doo if that happens. today, let us talk about the greatest of all mysteries, what sits on your shoulder. believe it or not, we have learned more about the brain in the last 10 to 15 years than in all of human history combined. that is the power of physics. radio. radio allows us to penetrate right into the thinking mind. and then we look for it goes, it goes to radio ricochet enough oxygen molecules in an mri machine to give a score just, gorgeous pictures of hot ricochet lycopene palm ball inside the human mind. believe it or not, your brain only uses 20 watts of power and yet to simulate it with a digital computer, it would require a computer a city block by a city block.
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it would consume the energy of a nuclear power plant and it would have to be cooled by a river. your brain does it with 20 watts. so when someone calls you a dim bulb, that is a compliment. [laughter] so how is it possible and what is consciousness anyway? well, in the history of science come and there have been 20,000 papers written about consciousness. never in the history of science have so many devoted so much to produce so little. however, in my book i actually give you a definition, a metric by which you can measure numerically levels of consciousness. i am a physicist. purchase motorbikes, eloquent of this full text the goal of the coins. we define it, quantify it and it's all in my lip. said the two great mysteries are the universe in the mind and
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some people think well, i work in what is called string theory. what is so strange about strings? well, look at nature. but the fundamental level, dna is a string. a string allows you to encode vast amounts of information on the dna molecule in a unit of time in the brain has been around, which is also a string. so we take that string theory at the fundamental of all biological and physical knowledge. and so let's talk about the movies. the movies are always a little bit ahead of fma talk about telepathy, reading minds. did you know that we can now do that in the laboratory? they talk about telekinesis, moving objects with the mind. and not only that, but in hollywood movies, they talk about not just to let 50, but also uploading memories.
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we can now do that for the first time in history. just last year at wake forest, university, the first memory was uploaded into a mouse brain and we inserted the memory back into the mouse and mouse remembered it perfectly. last week, the united states pentagon announced a $40 million initiative to record memories for gis from iraq and afghanistan. reporting memories is going to happen in our lifetime. this is like the nature aches. uploading reality. have you ever thought to yourself late at night, late at night when you are all by yourself, have you ever had that weird, bizarre thought that maybe you are the only one that's real, that life is like the matrix, just a movie uploaded into your mind and maybe someone is trying to test
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you to see whether you are smart enough to figure out you are the only one. let me ask you a question. have you ever had that weird thought? raise your hand if you've ever had that we are not late at night. well, you are crazy. [laughter] use the fewer the only one in the world? that's ridiculous. you see, i am the only one in the world. i am actually in bed right now. i am actually imagining i am here in washington d.c. at the convention center, speaking to a knotty and. realize that this is now possible. the first memory was uploaded into a mouse brain and the short-term goal is to do it with monkeys and men for alzheimer's patients. the short-term goal -- not the long-term goal, the short-term goal is to create a brain pacemaker. that is why the military is dumping $40 million into this to
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create a brain pacemaker for alzheimer's patients. president barack obama and the european union have announced a $1 billion initiative, the brain and issue date, to create a new genome project. in the future you will have two discs. one is your genome with all of your jeans on it. any other disk is your connect down, a billion dollars now put into creating a second desk. with all of your sensations and all your memories, basically all your thoughts on a second desk. and when you die -- when you die, your genome interconnect dome lid on. and some sense, you are immortal. but is it really you? to quote president bill clinton, it all depends on how you define you. [laughter] but nonetheless, let's think about what happens when you
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upload memories. this is the former governor of california. having the memory of being married to sharon stone suddenly uploaded into his mind in the movie total recall. so yes, there are consequences if you upload memories of an entire marriage. ..
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when his mind would allow him to bypass his spinal cord so he could walk again. unfortunately he died too soon. we have created exoskeletons. the military has spent hundreds of millions of dollars to create exoskeletons for our wounded warriors. surrogates, controlling a robot mentally. this is from the movie "sure row gates" starring bruce willis. this is maybe the future of the space program. it is too dangerous put humans
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into outer space all the time. why not put robots and have robots guided mentally sitting in his hot to be in his living room. explore the unpercent, mentally, that the thesis behind "avatar" and also the movie "sure row gates" mentally controlling surrogates. teleken niece sis, the ability to control objects with your mind this is from the movie, "carrie," who has been picked on all these years, has her final revenge destroying the high school class at the senior prom. what is the lesson here? the lesson is never bring a telekinetic to the senior prom. [laughing]
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even superman movies have gotten wind of this revolution. every high schoolkid knows that superman's father died when krypton blew up. every kid knows this. in the latest superman movie, his father lives on as a hello gram whose memory is inside of a computer a memory that lives on. personality, memories sensations all played by russell crowe. so here is russell crowe, the father of superman, living and, this could be the future of the library of congress. when you go to the library of congress you may sit down to have wonderful conversation with somebody like einstein, somebody like winston churchill, george george washington, all their memories sensations have been recorded. there you are talking to a hologram having a great afternoon tea with abraham lincoln. this is possible. and the question of mind without
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body, science fiction writers love this concept and believe it or not, if you have two disks, one with your genome, and one with your kinectome, live on after you die, in some sense the mind is living beyond the body. this is the dream of ancients and science fiction writers. this is conceivable. talk about the brain. blood flow can be analyzed by mri scans. on your left is your blood flow in your brain when you tell the truth. not much happens. on the right, when you tell a lie, ah, yes, when you tell a lie. when you tell a lie, first you have to know the truth. then you have to create the lie. then you have to create the cover-up and consistency with the lie with all the previous lies you've been telling all these years. that is a lot of brain power. your brain lights up like a christmas tree. there is your brain on the right telling a lie.
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now what have we learned from these brain scans? we learned the most ancient part of the brain is the back of your brain. so-called reptilian brain. the brain evolved from the back to the front. when infants are born, the back of the brain is most developed. that is the reptilian brain. when you have a car accident, and you have whiplash, your balance, your sense of tear tore alty, aggression, simple things like that in the back of the brain are affected. when the brain gross from infancy to adolescents the center part of the brain develops the olympic system, the monkey brain of the brain of emotions, brain of etiquette, politeness, social norms, that the center of the brain. mine alley when you become an adult. he prefrontal cortex at the front of the brain develops. we can test old wives tales looking at living brain. what old wives tale says, every
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parent knows this. david: their teenage kids suffer from brain damage? it's true. you can actually show that as brain develops from the back to the front, teenagers do not have a well-formed prefrontal cortex. it is another old old wives tale when a man talks to a pretty girl he starts to act stupid. it's true. when a man talks to a pretty girl, blood literally drains from the prefrontal cortex and he becomes mentally retarded, okay? you can measure this, looking at blood flow. it is absolutely true, october? all those old wife's tales can be systematically analyzed looking at mri scans. we have two hemispheres, one on the left and one on the right. normally the two memphis fears talk to each others -- hemispheres. epileptics the seizures get out of control. the scientists have to cut the
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connection between the left and right hemispheres and then something bizarre, something weird happens. the two brains that are now cut begin to create two different personalities. amazing. documented cases. one man comes home, greets his wife with one arm, he embraces her. with the other arm he socks her in the face. documented case. another documented case, one man, his left brain was an atheist, his right brain was a believer. can you imagine dying and going to heaven, only half your brain goes to heaven in and sooner or later, right here in washington, d.c., i'm sure we'll find some person who has a left brain that is republican and a right brain that is democrat, all inside the same skull, each controlling two different arms. can you imagine them going to the polling booth and the two of them fight over which lever to
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pull? that is going to happen. that will happen. and this is the 1950s. in the 1950s we had these horrible looking gadgets placed over the brain that measures radio, brain impulses, electromagnetic signals from the brain. now we do it with, inplants and headbands. and the upper left, you can now play video games mentally. it picks up radio from the brain. it deciphers via a chip and play videogames by thinking about it. and in japan, on the upper right, you can buy a headband with two ears on it, and at a party, when you meet someone who is interesting, the two ears go bong like that. when you talk to on one who is really boring the two years go like that. and so, in japan you always know if you're going to go home alone
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after a party. and in my class, if my class i will make sure my students wear these helmets so i know exactly who is going to fail and exactly who is going to pass my course. on the lower left. silicon valley is getting wind of this. by putting censors on your head, you can walk into the room, turn on the lights, surf the web, write email, you can read email, you can play video games. you can operate household appliances. in the future you will able to drive a carmen tally. this is today. in future when we perfect that technology, the mouse will disappear. and madison avenue is getting wind of this. they want to make this fashionable at some point.
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even my colleague stephen hawking, stephen has now lost control of his fingerprints. that is his soul means of communication is blinking. so, my friend, we're all physicists, we hooked him up to a computer mentally. next time you see him on tv, look at his right glass. his right glass has a chip in it. that chip picks up radio messages from his brain and allows him to type on a laptop computer mentally. bypassing his fingers, bypassing any mechanical modes by thinking he is able to type. and, we can now do this with paraplegics. the military is very interested. $150 million the pentagon pledged to put a chip right on top of the brain connected to mechanical arms and legs. this man is totally paralyzed.
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he can not scratch his nose. he can not communicate with his loved ones. he is a prisoner. just like steven a prisoner in his own body. at brown university, they put a chip into his brain, connected him to a laptop computer, he can now control his wheelchair and operate kitchen appliances, surf the web and play videogames. this person can now operate mechanical arms. mechanical arms. she is totally paralyzed. she communicates by blinking like what stephen does, and feed herself for the first time in history. first time in history she wan feed herself mentally. the pentagon has put $150 million to the revolutionary prosthetics program so injured soldiers can bypass the spinal cord and control exoskeletons. and at the soccer games as i mentioned, a billion people witness ad historic event, with
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the power of the mind, a person setting off the world's soccer games just this past summer. and then, realized that even beyond this, lies the capability of controlling robots mentally. this is japan. in japan this worker puts on a helmet, picks up radio from the brain and controls the robot here shown on the right. mentally controlling a robot. this could be the future of firemen. firemen, ambulance workers, emergency workers, may eventually control robots that can walk into a fire, right into dangerous environments, and do the work that they have to do. for example, at fukushima, in japan, we have a raging nuclear meltdown, three of them simultaneously, going on even as we speak, even as we speak. they still have not yet gotten
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control of three melted cores. they put in robots. all failed. every robot has failed because they are simply not sophisticated enough. why not put a robot in that is controlled mentally? and this could be the future of your classroom. remember, when we were kids. we used to play hooky all the time, that stuff, right? can you write a note saying little johnny is sick today? well, this is the future. you will have a surrogate. the surrogate will have video image on it. you will be sick in bed. the teacher will see the image of surrogate sitting in your chair and see your teacher in your surrogate. this is the future of education. isn't the future wonderful? we'll never be able to play hooky ever again. you will never miss a day of class because you, or your surrogate is always sitting in your chair.
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just like we all did when we were little, right? this could be future of the internet. the internet is in your glasses. google glasses you can recognize people's faces and biography appears next to the person's face. if he speaks chinese to you, we can create internet so that translations occur as somebody cheeksdspeaks chinese to you and you will see their biography and their translation underneath their image. how many times you've been at conference like this and bump into an old friend and you say to yourself who, is this person? jim, john, i know this person. and in the future your contact lens will say, it is jim, stupid. you see him every year at the national book festival. here it is complete biography even if he speaks chinese to you.
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let's say afterwards you're shooting the bull, and there's a cocktail party, a cocktail party with very important people there but you don't know who they are. in the future. you will know exactly who to suck up to at any future cocktail party. these contact lenses will change everything. who are the first people to buy internet contact lenses? college students taking final examinations. they will blink and see all the answers to the final exam right there in their contact lens. who is the next person to buy internet contact lenses? president barack obama so he doesn't have to have the damn teleprompters in front of him giving his speech. who is the third person to buy internet contact lenses. vice president joe biden so that he is always on message as they say. [laughing] so you can see that the potential with technology is like living in the matrix of the
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when you walk into a room you will see identification of all the objects. if you're in rome and you see nothing but the ruins of the roman empire, you will see the roman empire resurrected in your contact lens as you walk to the ruins of rome. if you bargain with the merchants in the bizarre you see subtitles translating italian into english. in the future everyone will be connected. okay, these are emergency workers of the future, surrogates controlled mentally by the mind. so this is a prospect of exoskeleton, the prospect of surrogates, the prospect of literally living in the matrix. and then, this is the possibility of retrieving memories. last year, for the first time in history, scientists at wake forest university recorded the world's first memory.
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they took a mouse. the mouse had a hip that was wired up. memories are made to the campus. tape-recorded, just tape-recorded the and later when the mouse forgot the task and later reinserted memory into the mouse. later on the first try the mouse remembered the task. at mit a few months later they duplicated the experiment and up load ad false memory into a mouse. and last week, last week, the united states pentagon announced a $40 million project to create in four years, four years, a memory chip, a memory chip for veterans of iraq and afghanistan to enhance their memories. and like i said in the future, you will be able to relive the vacation you never had. and beyond that, at berkeley
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where i got my phd years ago, you can now photograph a thought. this was considered way into science fiction and now we do it every day. here is how we do it. this picture here shows a brain scan using mri. it converts blood flow into 30,000 dots as you look at a picture. then using mris, we're able to, massage this picture, analyze the dots and create an image. so from the brain from all these 30,000 dots we create a picture what you're looking at. look at the picture very carefully. you're looking at some first photographs of human thought ever photographed in history. you see a picture of steve martin. next to it is a fuzzy picture, reconstructed from the human mind. amazeingsing. if you're looking at the mona lisa, the it will construct a
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crude picture of the "mona lisa" from the blood flow inside of your brain. then when you fall asleep it records your memories of your dreams. in the future you may wake up, hit a button and see the dream that you had the previous night. we could also begin to understand things like lucid dreaming. lucid dream something right out of science fiction. when you are conscious while you are dreaming. it was once considered a fake but with blood flow experiments in university in leipzig, germany, we proved it is real. you can control your dream while you are dreaming and prove it using mri flows. how many people here, just by the way, ever had an episode of lucid dreaming where you knew you were dreaming while you were dreaming? raise your hand? hundreds of people have done it. you can train yourself on internet. there are ways to train yourself to become a lucid dreamer and it is true. these are pictures, pictures of
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an elephant, pictures of a human. then on the right is the computer reconstruction of what you're looking at. and, the big one, is mental illness. why is president barack obama, why is the european union, dumping a billion dollars into the brain initiative? to solve one of our most ancient diseases, mental illness. millions of americans at some point in their life will suffer some episode of depression, mental illness, anxiety. what is mental illness? well, for example, schizophrenia is when you hear voices. that is called madness, when you hear voices. however when you put this person in mri scan you find something interesting. the left part of the brain lights up because that part of the brain talks to itself. when you talk to yourself, the left part of the brain generates voices. that is why you talk to yourself. the front part of your brain is your conscious brain.
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it knows that the left part of the brain is talking to itself. in these people when they have a episode of schizophrenia, the left part of their brain lights up without their permission. they are unaware that they are literally talking to themselves and you see that now for the first time in history looking at blood flow of a schizophrenic mind. and, we can now look at joan of arc and many his tore al figures in this light. turns out people with epileptic visions, sufficienter from hyper religiosity. they think they are talking to god. everything happens meant to be that way. if somebody falls, it was meant to be that way. we think joan of arc was not schizophrenic. joan of arc suffered from hyper religiosity. we can actually induce this with a helmet. we can actually put a helmet that shoots radio into the temporal cortex of the brain and
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inducing the feeling of being in the presence of god. this is a called a god helmet. and we can actually induce this feeling. scientists of course we like to experiment. we put an atheist inside of the god helmet. [laughter]. that atheist was richard dawkins. we put richard dawkins in the god helmet. and afterwards we asked him, do you feel the presence of god. he said no, no god. they put a catholic nun in the god helmet. the catholic nun was, her belief shaken because you can induce the feeling of god with a switch? and she said no, she said, god made us with a telephone system so that we can communicate with god. you can't win. anyway, let me wind up. super geniuses, yet one of many things we talk about in the


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